Although the total number of unintentional injury deaths has declined by more than 40 percent during the past 20 years , the rates of childhood injury are much higher in the United States when compared with other developed countries. In 2001, unintentional injuries consttuted 70 percent of all injury deaths to children and adolescents in the United States . Health effects from these diverse indoor air pollutants include respiratory irritation with cough and wheezing, exacerbation of asthma, allergic responses, cancer, and central nervous system effects .
Their widely used Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scale assesses the type and frequency of interactions and learning experiences that parents provide for their children, both inside and outside the home. All children do not enter school equally equipped to master its associated challenges. The literature linking parental reading to infants and toddlers with emergent literacy skills led the American Academy of Pediatrics to recommend that pediatricians “prescribe” reading to parents beginning when their children are 6 months old.
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Exposure to asbestos, leading to lung cancer, is also a concern due to the prevalence of asbestos in schools and some homes (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1987; American Academy of Pediatrics, 1987). A well-known example is the epidemic of cerebral palsy that followed maternal consumption of fish contaminated with organic mercury in Minimata Bay, Japan . There are multiple short critical periods during the development of a fetus when a short, acute exposure may cause a problem. For this reason, exposures need to be tracked as highs and lows on a daily basis rather than as monthly averages. However, a daily peak may exceed a threshold of concern and still be most effective diet within the regulatory limit.
The relationship between poverty and child health has been a focus of attention for decades , and a relationship between low SES and poor health has been well known at least since the beginning of the 18th century. However, only recently have we come to realize that increments to socioeconomic position are positively associated with health at virtually all social levels .
- That same year, 291,000 children under 15 years of age were injured in traffic crashes, including 248,000 who were passengers and 22,000 who were pedestrians.
- Injuries are the leading cause of death among children between ages 1 and 19, accounting for more deaths than homicide, suicide, congenital anomalies, cancer, heart disease, respiratory illness, and HIV combined .
- In 2000, 2,343 children under age 15 were killed in traffic crashes, including 1,668 who were passengers, 469 who were pedestrians, and 175 who were on bicycles.
- On an average day, 6 children are killed and 797 are injured in motor vehicle crashes.
That same year, 291,000 children under 15 years of age were injured in traffic crashes, including 248,000 who were passengers and 22,000 who were pedestrians. On an average day, 6 children are killed and 797 are injured in motor vehicle crashes. Injuries are the leading cause of death among children between ages 1 and 19, accounting for more deaths than homicide, suicide, congenital anomalies, cancer, heart disease, respiratory illness, and HIV combined .
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A child living near a busy intersection or near a heavily traveled truck route may sustain considerably more particulate exposure than a child living in a quieter neighborhood several blocks away. Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death among children over a year old. In 2000, 2,343 children under age 15 were killed in traffic crashes, including 1,668 who were passengers, 469 who were pedestrians, and 175 who were on bicycles.
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Children who live, attend school, or play near busy roads or in crowded urban areas, where they are exposed to the exhaust from automobiles and trucks, may experience acute and chronic respiratory effects. In addition, children who live in metropolitan areas with heavy traffic, especially in parts of the country conducive to ozone formation for biogeophysical and meteorological reasons, may be exposed to high levels of ozone during the warm months of the year. A child in the suburbs may sustain ozone exposure that is as high as, or even higher than, the exposures of an inner-city child. In contrast, particulate matter less than 2.5 microns diameter (Pm2.5), which can affect respiratory function, may vary from block to block.